|Dosage||:||Tablets, Oral drops, Syrup, Injection|
|Contains||:||Hydroxyzine hydrochloride 10 mg / 25 mg|
|Uses||:||Psoriasis, Eczema (Dermatitis), Rhinitis and Urticaria|
Atarax acts as an antihistamine with sedative properties bringing down the activity in the central nervous system. It contains Hydroxyzine which works by blocking a certain natural substance known as histamine. Histamines are created by the body during an allergic reaction and often produce symptoms like sneezing, watery eyes and runny nose or hives on the skin. Hydroxyzine is also helpful as a sedative to treat anxiety and tension. It is often prescribed together with other medications given for anaesthesia, to help relax the patient before a surgery.
Besides relieving symptoms associated with allergies like rhinitis, Atarax is also prescribed in urticaria, eczema and psoriasis to treat symptoms like itchy skin and swelling.
Atarax is manufactured by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL) an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company based in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The company has a state-of-the-art Research & Development Centre housing 70 laboratories with over 800 research scientists working on various projects. It works closely with other centres across the UK and the Netherlands, offering wide-ranging access to affordable and innovative medicines – from synthetic organic chemistry to formulations development; from intellectual property management to regulatory science; from polymorphism to bio-pharmaceutics.
You have been prescribed Atarax as you may be diagnosed with Allergic Rhinitis, Urticaria, Eczema or Psoriasis.
Allergic rhinitis or hay fever causes cold-like signs and symptoms such as a runny nose, itchy eyes, congestion, sneezing, allergic conjunctivitis and sinus pressure. It is caused by an allergic response to outdoor or indoor allergens such as pollen, dust mites or tiny flecks of skin and saliva shed by cats, dogs and other animals with fur or even from feathers.
Medications for hay fever include nasal corticosteroids, antihistamines, decongestants, allergy shots (immunotherapy) and rinsing of sinuses.
Urticaria or hives is an outbreak of swollen, itchy, pale red bumps or wheals on the skin due to the body’s reaction to certain allergens. An allergic reaction triggers the body to release a protein called histamine. The histamine causes inflammation and fluid begins to accumulate under the skin causing wheals. When new outbreaks happen almost every day for 6 weeks or more, it’s called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Causes of Urticaria include stress or underlying autoimmune disorders like thyroid dysfunction, food allergies and viruses.
Treatment for acute urticaria includes non-sedating antihistamines taken regularly for several weeks. Antibiotics may also be needed for chronic urticaria.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition caused by an overactive immune system. Symptoms include itchiness, flaking, rashes, inflammation, scaly plaques, thick, white, silvery or red patches of skin. The itchy, painful part of the skin that may crack or bleed. Discolouration of fingernails and toenails may take place and nails may begin to detach from the nail bed and crumble. Psoriasis can be triggered by strep throat skin infections or Injuries to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a bug bite or severe sunburn. Stress, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption and Vitamin D deficiency can also cause Psoriasis.
Eczema is linked to an overactive response by the body’s immune system to an irritant. In addition, Eczema is commonly found in families with a history of other allergies or asthma. Eczema symptoms include dry, sensitive skin, very bad itching, dark coloured patches rough, leathery or scaly patches of skin, redness, inflammation, oozing, crusting and skin swelling. Eczema is related to a gene variation that affects the skin’s ability to provide protection against bacteria, irritants and allergens.
Psoriasis and eczema is usually diagnosed by examining your skin. If your doctor isn’t sure about the type of skin condition, a biopsy may be recommended where a small sample of your skin is removed and examined under a microscope. You may also be recommended blood tests and X-rays.
Treatment for Psoriasis is aimed at removing scales and stopping skin cells from growing at a quick pace. Psoriasis treatment may include, topical ointments, light therapy, steroid creams, occlusion (i.e. using waterproof adhesive dressings) and biologics. Eczema is treated with topical creams, biologics, systemic treatments, pills, moisturisers, baths and natural remedies.
As directed by your Physician
As directed by your Physician
Significant: CNS depression, tachycardia, palpitation, bronchospasm, extrapyramidal effects, tremor, convulsion, severe injection site reactions (e.g. extensive tissue damage, necrosis, gangrene) with IM administration. Rarely, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia. Ear and labyrinth disorders: Tinnitus, labrynthitis, vertigo. Eye disorders: Blurred vision, accommodation disorder.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue, asthenia, malaise, pyrexia. Immune system disorders: Urticaria, anaphylaxis, angioedema. Investigations: Abnormal LFTs.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Porphyria, anorexia. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Myalgia. Nervous system disorders: Somnolence, headache, dizziness, paraesthesia, dyskinesia.
Psychiatric disorders: Insomnia, hallucination, sleep disturbances, slurred speech. Renal and urinary disorders:
Urinary retention, dysuria. Reproductive system and breast disorders: Priapism, impotence.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Thickened respiratory secretion, wheezing, nasal stuffiness. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash, pruritus, alopecia, fixed drug eruption.
Vascular disorders: Hypotension, flushing.
Potentially Fatal: Torsade de pointes, QT interval prolongation, cardiac arrhythmia, respiratory depression; intravascular haemolysis, thrombosis, and digital gangrene following IV or intra-arterial injection.
Patient with increased intraocular pressure, angle-closure glaucoma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, COPD, decreased gastrointestinal motility, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, primary biliary cirrhosis, bladder outflow obstruction, urinary retention, prostatic hyperplasia, hyperthyroidism, recent MI, uncompensated heart failure, CV disease, hypertension, myasthenia gravis, dementia, epilepsy; increased potential for convulsions. Patients taking drugs that induce bradycardia and hypokalaemia. Renal and hepatic impairment. Children and elderly. Patient Counselling This drug may cause dizziness, drowsiness and reduced physical coordination, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery. Monitoring Parameters Monitor blood pressure, mental status, and signs of symptom relief.
Acquired or congenital QT interval prolongation, predisposition to QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes such as significant electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia), significant bradycardia, history of cardiac arrhythmia, family history of sudden cardiac death; porphyria. Asthmatic patients with previous serious antihistamine-induced adverse bronchopulmonary effect. Severe liver disease. Pregnancy and lactation. Concomitant use of drugs known to prolong QT interval or induce torsade de pointes (e.g. quinidine, amiodarone).
May potentiate the CNS depressant effects of opiates (e.g. meperidine) and other analgesics; barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, anxiolytics, antiemetics, antiepileptics, other antihistamines, skeletal muscle relaxants, sedatives, anaesthetics. Potentiate antimuscarinic effects of TCAs, MAOIs, and other anticholinergics (e.g. atropine). Increased plasma concentrations with cimetidine, potent CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors. Inhibits and reverses the vasopressor effect of epinephrine. May antagonise the effects of betahistine and anticholinesterase drugs. May mask the signs of damage caused by ototoxic agents (e.g. aminoglycosides).
Potentially Fatal: Increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia with drugs known to prolong QT interval or induce torsade de pointes such as class IA (e.g. quinidine, disopyramide) and class III antiarrhythmics (e.g. amiodarone, sotalol), some antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol), some antidepressants (e.g. escitalopram, citalopram), some antimalarials (e.g. mefloquine), some antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin, levofloxacin), some gastrointestinal agents (e.g. prucalopride), some anti-cancer drugs (e.g. toremifene, vandetanib), and methadone.
Symptoms: Excessive sedation, stupor, somnolence, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, pyrexia, impaired pupillary reflex, tremor, delirium, hallucination. Followed by decreased level of consciousness, respiratory depression, hypotension, convulsion, coma, cardiorespiratory collapse. Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment. May consider activated charcoal within 1 hour of ingestion. May employ gastric lavage only if life-threatening amount has been ingested within the previous hour and when airway can be protected following acute ingestion. If hypotension occurs, may administer IV fluids, norepinephrine, dopamine or metaraminol, depending on severity and on the cause of hypotension. Dialysis may be indicated if other agents (e.g. barbiturates) have been ingested concomitantly.
Intramuscular: Store between 15-30°C. Protect from light. Oral: Store between 15-30°C. Protect from light.
Hydroxyzine, a piperazine derivative, competitively blocks histamine H1-receptors on effector cells of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract, thereby inhibiting H1-receptor-mediated reactions such as vasodilation, flare and itch reactions, and sneezing. It is a sedating antihistamine with antimuscarinic and sedative effects, skeletal muscle relaxing, bronchodilator, antiemetic and analgesic properties.
https://www.drugs.com › atarax
https://www.webmd.com › drugs › drug-5511 › atarax-oral › details
https://www.webmd.com › guide › hives-urticaria
https://www.mayoclinic.org › psoriasis