Vildagliptin belongs to class of drugs called DPP-4 inhibitors (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors). It is prescribed in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Vildaglitin has a unique way of controlling blood glucose levels.
GLP-1 and GIP are two most important hormones in body that stimulate insulin secretion in response to food intake. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) destroys GLP-1 and GIP. This leads to an increase in blood glucose levels as insulin is not secreted as required. Vildagliptin inhibits DPP-4 and hence prevents inactivation of GLP-1 and GIP by DPP-4. This allows GLP-1 and GIP to potentiate the secretion of insulin in beta cells of pancreas. Vildagliptin also suppresses glucagon release by the alpha cells in the pancreas that is responsible to increase the glucose content of blood
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Diabetes type 2
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells don’t respond normally to insulin; this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
People are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes if they have prediabetes, are overweight, are 45 years or older, have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes, are less physically active or had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy). It can be prevented or delayed with simple, proven lifestyle changes such as losing weight if you’re overweight, eating healthier, and getting regular physical activity.
Patient w/ cardiac failure (NYHA functional class IV), type 1 DM; history of acute pancreatitis. Not intended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Hepatic impairment, including patients w/ pre-treatment ALT or AST >3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). Moderate or severe renal impairment, ESRD. Monitoring Parameters Monitor liver function.
Decreased hypoglycaemic effect with thiazides, corticosteroids, thyroid products and sympathomimetics.
Symptoms: Muscle pain, mild and transient paraesthesia, fever, oedema, transient increase in lipase levels; increases in creatine phosphokinase, AST, C-reactive protein and myoglobin levels. Management: Supportive treatment.
Store below 30°C. Protect from moisture.
Mechanism of Action
Vildagliptin rapidly and completely inhibits DPP-4 activity, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial endogenous levels of the incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and GIP (glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide).