Ovral L Tablet is a combination medicine used for oral contraception (prevention of pregnancy). This medicine is not recommended for use in patients yet to achieve menarche (the first occurrence of menstruation).
Ovral-L contains Ethinylestradiol. Ethinylestradiol also ethinyl estradiol (EE), is a derivative of estradiol. Ethinyl estradiol is an orally bio-active estrogen used in almost all modern formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills (the Pill). It is one of the most commonly used medications.
Ovral L is product from Pfizer Inc. Pfizer is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City. It is one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies.
The company developed and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology, oncology, cardiology, endocrinology, and neurology. Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor (atorvastatin), used to lower LDL blood cholesterol; Lyrica (pregabalin) for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia; Diflucan (fluconazole), an oral antifungal medication; Zithromax (azithromycin), an antibiotic; Viagra (sildenafil) for erectile dysfunction; and Celebrex (also Celebra, celecoxib), an anti-inflammatory drug.
The deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse. The major forms of artificial contraception are: barrier methods, of which the commonest is the condom or sheath; the contraceptive pill, which contains synthetic sex hormones which prevent ovulation in the female; intrauterine devices, such as the coil, which prevent the fertilized ovum from implanting in the uterus; and male or female sterilization.
Contraception allows individuals to put off having children until their bodies are fully able to support a pregnancy. It can also prevent pregnancy for older women who face pregnancy-related risks. Contraceptive use reduces the need for abortion by preventing unwanted pregnancies
As directed by your Physician.
As directed by your Physician.
Adverse Reactions/ Side Effects
Menstrual irregularities; headache, dizziness; breast discomfort; gynaecomastia; depression; disturbance of appetite; wt changes; fluid retention; oedema; changes in libido; hair loss or hirsutism; GI disturbances (nausea and vomiting); genitourinary changes; haematologic disorders; endocrine and metabolic disorders; cholestatic jaundice; local skin reactions; chorea; contact lens intolerance; steeping of corneal curvature; pulmonary thromboembolism; carbohydrate and/or glucose intolerance; depression; chloasma; BP increase, liver impairment; reduced menstrual loss, ‘spotting’ in early cycles, absence of withdrawal bleeding; rarely photosensitivity; increased risk in breast cancer; elevation of plasma bound iodine, cortisol and thyroid binding, erythrocyte sedimentation may be accelerated; increases in plasma copper, iron and alkaline phosphatase; may affect serum triglyceride and lipoprotein levels; retinal vascular thrombosis.
Potentially Fatal: Hepatic tumours; increased risk of thromboembolism.
Warnings and Precautions
Sex-steroid dependent cancer; past ectopic pregnancy; malabsorption syndromes; functional ovarian cysts; active liver disease, recurrent cholestatic jaundice, history of jaundice in pregnancy; history of CV or renal impairment; DM; asthma; epilepsy; migraine; depression; lactation; conditions exacerbated by fluid retention; hypercalcaemia; CV and gall bladder diseases; lipid effects; familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism; patients at risk of venous thromboembolism, breast cancer, preexisting uterine leiomyomata and benign hepatic adenoma; family history of arterial disease in 1st degree relative <45 yr; BP > systolic 140 mmHg and diastolic 90 mmHg; >35 yr; BMI 30-39 kg/m2; migraine without focal aura, controlled with 5HT1; GI upset (vomiting and diarrhoea), missed pills and interaction with other drugs may require additional contraceptive precautions. Should be taken at same time each day.
Pregnancy, undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, severe arterial disease (or family history of atherogenic lipid profile); liver adenoma; porphyria; after evacuation of hydatidiform mole; history of breast cancer; hepatic impairment; thrombophloebitis or thromboembolic disorders; breast carcinoma except in selected patients being treated for metastatic disease; oestrogen-dependent tumour; smoking ≥40 cigarettes daily; >50 yr; diabetes complications present; BMI >39 kg/m2; migraine with typical focal aura, lasting >72 hr despite treatment or migraine treated with ergot derivatives; BP >160 mmHg systolic and 100 mmHg diastolic; transient ischaemic attacks without headaches; SLE; gallstones; history of haemolytic uraemic syndrome, pruritis during pregnancy; cholestatic jaundice; chorea or deterioration of otosclerosis pemphigoid; breast feeding during 1st 6 mth after delivery.
CYP3A4 inducers may decrease levels/effects eg aminoglutethimide, carbamazepine, nafcillin, nevirapine, atazanavir, nelfinavir, phenobarbital, phenytoin, lamotrigine, rifamycins, griseofulvin and ritonavir; ampicillin, tetracycline and other antibiotics may reduce efficacy; oestrogens may antagonise anticoagulant effect of coumarins; may inhibit metabolism of prednisolone and ciclosporin; may reduce clearance of alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam; may increase clearance of lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam.
St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) may reduce levels and effect; avoid; alfalfa, black cohosh, bloodroot, hops, kudzu, licorice, red clover, saw palmetto, soybean, thyme, wild yam, yucca may have oestrogenic properties and increase the adverse and toxic effects; bloodroot, chasteberry, damiana, oregano, yucca have progestogenic properties and may increase the adverse and toxic effects; oral contraceptives may reduce metabolism and levels of cyanocobalamin, increased dietary intake or supplementation may be necessary; grapefruit juice antagonises metabolism.
Symptoms: nausea and vomiting, withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Treatment: symptom specific and supportive; emesis and charcoal administration may be used.
Mechanism of Action
Combination of hormonal contraceptives inhibits ovulation by modulating pituitary secretion of gonadotrophins, luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone through a negative feedback system. They reduce sperm penetration if ovulation does occur by altering the cervical mucus; cause changes in the endometrium which reduce the risk of nidation and may change the tubal transport of the ova through the fallopian tubes.