PHEXIN

Dosage : Capsule
Contains : Cefalexin
Category : Cefalosporin antibiotic
Uses : Bacterial infections
Price :

Phexin contains the semisynthetic antibiotic Cefalexin with a bactericidal effect. It binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the process necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity. This interrupts bacterial cell wall synthesis and results in the weakening of the bacterial cell wall and causes cell lysis killing the bacteria.

 

Phexin is prescribed for the following conditions:

  • Skin and soft tissue infections
  • Uncomplicated UTI
  • Bone and joint infections
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis
  • Otitis media

 

Phexin is a brand of GlaxoSmithkline which is the world’s leading research based pharmaceutical, healthcare and vaccine company. Through its accomplished and dedicated workforce, GSK applies its expertise to innovate various medicines that contributes to the health and well-being of the people of all generations around the world. The company is committed to improve the quality of human life by enabling people to do more, feel better and live longer.

Phexin may have been recommended for you because you could be affected by bacterial infections. Bacterial infections include sore throat, respiratory tract infection, gastritis, skin and ear infections.

 

Bacterial infections may be marked by localized redness, inflammation, pain or swelling. Common symptoms include inflammation, fatigue, vomiting, coughing and sneezing, fever, diarrhoea and cramping

 

Pathogenic bacteria can gain access into the body through a range of access routes. These include cuts, contaminated food or water, close contact with an infected person, physical contact with the faeces of an infected person, getting infected through another person’s coughing or sneezing or by touching contaminated surfaces like taps, toilet handles, nappies or toys.

 

A bacteria culture test can help find harmful bacteria in your body. A sample is taken from the patient’s blood, urine, skin or other part of the body during a bacteria culture test. The cells in the sample are put in a special environment in a lab to encourage cell growth. Depending on the type of bacteria, results are often available within a few days.

Dosage

As prescribed by physician

Administration

As prescribed by physician

Adverse Reactions/ Side Effects

Significant: Hypersensitivity (rash, urticaria, angioedema, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), diarrhoea, seizures (in patient with renal impairment), acute intravascular haemolysis, elevated INR.

 

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia.

 

Gastrointestinal disorders: Dyspepsia, abdominal pain, gastritis, nausea, vomiting.

 

General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue, fever.

 

Hepatobiliary disorders: Rarely, transient hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice. Investigations: Slightly elevated AST and ALT.

 

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Arthralgia, arthritis. Nervous system disorders: Headache, dizziness. Psychiatric disorders: Agitation, confusion, hallucinations, nervousness, hyperactivity.

 

Renal and urinary disorders: Interstitial nephritis (reversible).

 

Reproductive system and breast disorders: Genital and anal pruritus, vaginitis, genital moniliasis and candidiasis, vaginal discharge.

 

Potentially Fatal: Anaphylaxis, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD).

Warnings and Precautions

Patients with history of carbapenem or penicillin allergy (especially IgE-mediated reactions), and seizure disorder. Children. Renal impairment. Pregnancy and lactation. Monitoring Parameters Monitor renal function tests, LFTs, and CBC periodically with prolonged therapy; monitor for signs of anaphylaxis during 1st dose. Monitor prothrombin time with patient at risk (e.g. nutritionally-deficient patients, prolonged treatment, hepatic or renal impairment).

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Acute porphyria.

Drug Interactions

Renal excretion may be inhibited by probenecid resulting to increased plasma concentration of cefalexin. May increase plasma concentration of metformin. Increased risk of nephrotoxicity with amphotericin, loop diuretics, aminoglycoside, capreomycin or vancomycin. May increase risk of hypokalaemia with gentamicin (in patient taking cytotoxic drugs for leukaemia). May decrease efficacy of oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives.

 

Pregnancy Category (US FDA)

 

Category B: Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a foetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters).

Overdosage

Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhoea and haematuria. Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Storage

Oral: Cap/tab: Store between 20-25°C. Powder for oral susp: Store between 20-25°C. Refrigerate at 2-8°C after reconstitution; discard after 14 days.

Mechanism of Action

Cefalexin, a 1st generation oral cephalosporin, binds to 1 or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) which in turn blocks the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting its biosynthesis and arresting cell wall assembly resulting to bacterial lysis.

References

https://www.mims.com/india/drug/info/cefalexin/?type=full&mtype=generic#Indications

https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/27447#section=Top

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